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WLF 301
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Gravity
Terms in this set (61)
Population (biology)
A group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place
at the same time.
Population (statistics)
A set of individuals, objects, or data from which a statistical sample can be
drawn.
Sample
A subset of a statistical population that is measured.
Statistic
A derived quantity that describes a sample.
Statistics
The field of mathematics or set of methods used to describe populations.
Hypothesis
A prediction or set of predictions about how a system functions.
Parameter
A quantity describing a population, usually one we wish to measure or estimate
Vital Rate
Any parameter describing a population that affects population dynamics or growth
Treatment
The combination of experimental conditions applied to an experimental unit.
Sampling Unit / Experimental Unit
The unit to which the treatment is applied.
Response variable
A measured quantity whose value is predicted by other measured quantities.
AKA \Dependent Variable."
Explanatory variable
A measured quantity whose value predicts the value of the response variable.
Random
A process of selection in which each item of a set has a predetermined probability of being
selected.
A 95% confidence interval on an estimated Xbar indicates
The interval which has a 95% chance of containing mu
Which of the following could be used to stratify a sample?
.
A. Sexual Maturity
B.Soil type
C. Habitat
D. Population density
E. All of the above
All of the above
In most situations what shape quadrats are optimal?
elongated rectangles
Samples are statistically independent if?
The value of each sample is not influenced by the value of other samples
In a ``Power Analysis'' the goal is?
To estimate the number of samples required to detect a specified difference between two or more populations
Which of the following is Ratio Data?
Mass of an object measured in kilograms
Counting animal tracks is an example of?
A population index
In an ANOVA, the test statistic is the:
F-ratio
A Point Count is a survey method most often used to:
Survey singing birds
What is Detectability?
The probability of an animal being detected given it is present
Expected Value of a random variable refers to
The long-run probability of the variable if drawn an infinite number of times
Optimal quadrat size minimizes?
Sample Variation
The mean is?
The average value of the sample set
In sampling, what does n represent?
N is used to designate size of the sample from each population
Name two out of three ways in which samples can be apportioned in a stratified design?
Uniform
Proportional
Optimal
Describe in a few words the difference between interval data and ratio data, being specific to note the key difference with respect to values of zero.
Interval: Measured on a fixed numerical scale, and distances between measures are known. But zero is arbitrary and has no meaning.
Ratio: Ratios are meaningful. Most data are measured on this scale. Temp on the Kelvin scale- 10K is twice as hot as 5K. Sizes/weights are ratio.
Name the three tenets of sampling design
Systematic, Random, and Stratified
Taking a larger number of samples with decrease?
The standard error
Optimal quadrat size minimizes?
Sample variation
Expected value of a random variable refers to?
The long-run probability of the variable if drawn an infinite number of times.
What is detectability?
The probability of an animal being detected given it is present.
Diameter at breast height
a.Is measured at about 140 cm from the ground
B. Is the standard measure of the thickness of a tree trunk
C. Can be measured using either calipers or measuring tape
D. All of the above
D. all of the above
What is Detection probability?
The probability of an animal being detected given it is present
What two sampling methods are the most similar?
Point center quarter and the k-tree methods
In a double sampling design, two surveys are performed. These two surveys are referred to as:
Extensive & Intensive
In the context of "Internal Validity", if the relationship between a cause and effect in an experimental system is specific, what does this mean?
The observed effect can be elicited only by the hypothesized cause and no other
In exploited populations, a method of estimating the population size which measures the number of males compared to females before and after a hunt, along with the total number of harvested animals is known as:
The change-in-ratio method
Nondemonic intrusion is an expression coined by Hurlbert (1984), it refers to:
Unpredictable destructive events that interfere with sampling and experiments
n an experiment, when two factors affect a measured response more than simply adding their individual effects together, the two factors have?
Interacted
(blank) occurs when multiple samples are taken from a single experimental unit, but treated as independent samples in a statistical analysis.
psuedoreplication
In an experiment, what is "interspersion"?
How evenly mixed the experimental treatments are in space or time
Which of the following are approach for mitigating observer effects in animal behavior studies:
a. Wear bright clothing.
b.Wear camoflauge clothing.
c.Use related animals in experiments.
d. Observe from a blind.
e. B & D
...
In an experiment that is testing the effects of two main variables, one with 2 treatment levels and the other with with 3 treatment levels, how many different experimental treatments would we need to conduct a full factorial experiment?
6
Populations where individuals are born, die, move into or out of sampled areas between sampling or capture events are referred to as?
Open
You design an experiment to understand how different intensities of light affect plant growth in the field. You set up plots with different densities of shade cloth that let 10%, 25%, and 50% of light through. To robustly understand the differences
a.Plots must be replicated
b.A treatment with no shade needs to be included
c. Plots need to be interspersed
d. A & C
e. A, B, & C
...
NDVI is a satellite measurement of what important molecule?
Chlorophyll
Which mark-recapture method must be used if the population being sampled is not closed?
Jolly-Seber
Which of the following is an example of a press disturbance?
Effluent from a fish farm
A BACI is a powerful quasi-experimental design because?
It has both spatial and temporal controls
When performing focal animal sampling:
One or a small group of animals is selected using sampling principles and carefully observed.
If variables have been "controlled for"
All treatments have been exposed to the same conditions for those variables, including a control treatment, so that we can isolate the effects of treatment variables.
You have captured and marked 50 snowshoe hares and released them. Two weeks later you capture 30 additional hares and find that 10 were marked two weeks before during the initial capture. Assuming the population is closed, use this information to estimate the number of snowshoe hares in the population. Setting up the equation correctly is worth 4 points, set up the equation and calculate the correct answer for full credit.
^n=(m*c)/r
(50*30)/10
150 is the estimated population of hares
You have captured and collected tissues samples from 10 seals to measure stress hormones. 5 tissues samples were taken from each animal to ensure stress hormones are correctly measured and variance in measured stress hormones is estimated. What is your sampling unit? What is your experimental unit? What is your sample size? Explain your answers.
Exp unit = 10 seals
Sampling unit = 5 tissue sample
Sample size = 10
In 2-3 sentences, describe what a "trade-off" is in behavioral ecology / life history theory.
One decision will benefit one part of its life but may decrease the quality of another part of its life. For example, bird species sometimes have to trade-off between feeding and protecting their chicks to feeding themselves. Sometimes the trade-off can end with their death but with the survival of their young.
Name 3 of Tinbergen's 4 key questions for behavior. All four are 1 word answers. One extra point for getting all 4, but do not provide more than 4 answers; points will be docked for extra incorrect guesses.
Function. How is the animal performing the behavior?
Evolution. How did the behavior evolve?
Causation. What causes the behavior to be performed?
Development. How has the behavior developed during the lifetime of the individual?
You've performed a mark-recapture experiment on a closed population and used the Lincoln-Peterson method to estimate N hat. You discover that the animals you've been recapturing are "trap happy." How will this effect your population size estimate? Be specific about which direction any bias this problem might introduce and explain your logic in a 3-4 sentences.
Because the animals that have been captured are trap happy that means that their will be a higher number of re-capture. The population estimate will be skewed to a smaller population. This can incorrectly show the population as endangered/at risk.
You've conducted a vegetation survey of birch along Chena Ridge using a Point Center Quarter survey method. The survey included 100 randomly selected sample points; point center quarter data for birch were collected at each. You've calculated R to be 2572.5 meters. Calculate r hat and the density of birch trees (λ hat).
r=2572.5
r^: (2572.5)/(4*100)=6.43
Density: 1/6.43=.156
Provide 3 examples of time series data.
...
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